Monday, February 18, 2019

Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 for Transfiguration of the Lord (Year C)


Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 is a further revision and refinement of my Lectionary Ruminations and Lectionary Ruminations 2.0.  Focusing on The Revised Common Lectionary Readings for the upcoming Sunday from New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of the Bible, Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 draws on over thirty years of pastoral experience.  Believing that the questions we ask are often more important than any answers we find, without over reliance on commentaries, I intend with sometimes pointed and sometimes snarky comments and Socratic like questions, to encourage reflection and rumination for readers preparing to lead a Bible study, draft liturgy, preach, or hear the Word. Reader comments are invited and encouraged.

EXODUS 34:29-35 1:20-33
34:29-35 This reading was probably paired with the Gospel Reading because they both mention mountains, shining faces, and narrate a theophany.  What is the difference between reading the Luke passage through the lens of Exodus and reading the Exodus passage through the lens of Luke? To help you reflect of theophanies on mountains and in deserts, especially on mountains in the desert, I recommend Belden C. Lane’s The Solace of Fierce Landscapes
Exploring Desert and Mountain Spirituality.
34:29 If you had looked at the face of Moses, what would you have seen?  When was the last time anyone left a worship service with a shining face?  Do you know anyone whose seems to beam, not because they use make-up or cleansing cream, but because they seem to radiate a spiritual energy from within? Is anybody else thinking about auras?
34:30 What about the shining face of Moses scared Aaron and the people?
34:31 Why would Moses calling to the people help them overcome their fear?
34:32 What is the meaning of “in commandment?”
34:33 Why did Moses put a veil on his face?  Is there any value in drawing a possible metaphorical connection between the veil over Moses’ face and the curtain in the Temple?  Those familiar with Celtic Christianity might wonder if the veil over Moses face was made of gossamer.
34:34 Why would Moses take off the veil when speaking with God?
34:35 Could the Israelites see the shining face of Moses through the veil that he wore?

PSALM 99
99:1-9 How does this Psalm help interpret and shed light (pun intended) on both the First Reading and the Gospel Reading?
99:1 Why would people tremble just because the LORD is king?  Why would the earth quake just because the LORD sits enthroned upon the cherubim?  When was the last time you trembled in the presence of the LORD? What are cherubim and where might we find them?  Should we call Indiana Jones for help with this one?
99:2 Is the use of great and exalted and example of Hebrew poetic parallelism?
99:3 What is great and awesome about the LORD’s name?  Other than the LORD’s name, can you think of anything great and awesome? How can anyone praise the LORD’s great and awesome name when the LORD’s name is not to be pronounced?
99:4 What sort of justice does this Mighty King love? What is meant by equity?
99:5 What and where is the LORD’s footstool? “Holy is He!” is beginning to sound like a refrain.
99:6 What does it mean to cry to the Lord?
99:7 What did the LORD’s voice sound like?  Is there a difference between decrees and statutes or is this more poetic parallelism?
99:8 Why the past tense?  Note that verses 1-7 and 9 speak of the LORD in the third person while this verse addresses the Lord in the second person.  Why the change?  Is it significant? How can the LORD be both a forgiving God and an avenging God?
99:9 Where is the LORD’s mountain and does the mention of a mountain justify the lectionary assigning this Psalm for use on The Transfiguration of the Lord?  Is the psalmist suggesting that the LORD can be worshiped only at God’s holy mountain and nowhere else?

2 CORINTHIANS 3:12-4:2
3:12 What such hope? Does the church ever act anymore with boldness?
3:13 Moses did not act with boldness? Glory was being set aside?  Is Paul criticizing Moses? Does Paul’s use of Moses’s veil as a metaphor justify assigning this passage to The Transfiguration of the Lord?
3:14 Whose minds were hardened?  Are our minds ever hardened, and if so, how?
3:14-15 Be careful of possible anti-Semitic interpretation of these verses.  Christians as well as Jews often have hardened minds and can read the Hebrew Scriptures through a metaphorical veil which hides and distorts.
3:16 How does turning to the Lord remove the veil?
3:17 How do we interpret this verse considering the Doctrine of the Trinity? In this context, what is the meaning of freedom?
3:18 Even though our veil has been removed, we still do not look at the LORD directly, but through a mirror?  I might prefer to look at God directly, even if through a veil, than without a veil but at a reflection.  To what does “the same image” refer?  Is it the image of God in which humans were created? Is it the image of Christ?  Is it the image of Moses reflecting the image of God?
4:1 Who are “we?” What ministry?
4:2 What shameful things do we hide that we should renounce? Do Christians ever practice cunning to grow churches and ministries?

LUKE 9:28-36 (37-43)
9:28-36 You may want to check the parallels in Matthew 17:1-8 and Mark 9:2-8. Why is there no Transfiguration in John? Why does the Lectionary assign a Gospel account of the Transfiguration the Sunday before the beginning of Lent every year in the three year cycle?
9:28 About eight days after what sayings? Does “about” suggest poor memories or an estimate? Is there any significance to the number eight? What mountain?  Why go up a mountain to pray? You too may want to read Belden C. Lane’s The Solace of Fierce Landscapes: Exploring Desert and Mountain Spirituality    Can Jesus not pray anywhere?  Note that once again Jesus takes with him the elite three – Peter, James, and John – a counter balance to the REALLY big three – Jesus, Moses and Elijah.
9:29 Is this perhaps a midrash on Exodus 34:29-35? Why didn’t Moses’ clothes become dazzling white? Does your appearance ever change when you pray?
9:30 What is significant about Moses and Elijah?  Why these two men? Whom else might we have expected to be talking with Jesus?
9:31 What does appearing in glory look like. Have you ever seen anyone appear in glory? What departure? Could Peter, James and John hear the conversation?
9:32 Is this a veiled reference (pun intended) to someone’s future falling asleep in the Garden while Jesus prayed? Note that Peter is again mentioned but that James and John are relegated or demoted to Peter’s companions.
9:33 Who were leaving? What is the meaning of “not knowing what he said?”  How often do we, like Peter, stick our foot in our mouth, not knowing what we have said?
9:34 Did they enter the cloud or did the cloud overtake them? Why would entering a cloud (or being overtaken by a cloud) induce feelings of terror?
9:35 Whose voice?  Where and when have we heard this, or something like this, before?
9:36 Why did they keep silent?  When were “those days?”
(9:37-43) How do these verses add to, or detract from, the Reading’s focus on The Transfiguration?  If we choose to include these optional verses (I will probably not include them) then we might want to point out that while Peter wants to stay on the mountain to build a museum, Jesus descends back into the trenches and gets back to the business of exorcizing demons and healing the sick. In that regard, who are the faithless and perverse generation?
(9:37) How long had they been on the mountain? How great of a crowd?
(9:38) Does this verse echo 9:35?
(9:39) What does this sound like?
(9:40) Were the disciples that powerless?
(9:41) What is the meaning of this?
(9:42) Have you ever rebuked an unclean spirit? Are there such things as clean spirits?
(9:43) What does it mean to be astounded?  Why were they astounded at the greatness of God rather than the greatness of Jesus? When was the last time you were astounded by God?
                                                                  
ADDENDUM
I am a Minister Member of Upper Ohio Valley Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) and am serving as the Interim Pastor of the Richmond United Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Ohio. Sunday Worship at Richmond begins at 11:00 AM. Some of my other blog posts have appeared on PRESBYTERIAN BLOGGERS and The Trek.

Monday, February 11, 2019

Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 for the 7th Sunday in Ordinary Time (Year C)


Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 is a further revision and refinement of my Lectionary Ruminations and Lectionary Ruminations 2.0.  Focusing on The Revised Common Lectionary Readings for the upcoming Sunday from New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of the Bible, Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 draws on over thirty years of pastoral experience.  Believing that the questions we ask are often more important than any answers we find, without over reliance on commentaries, I intend with sometimes pointed and sometimes snarky comments and Socratic like questions, to encourage reflection and rumination for readers preparing to lead a Bible study, draft liturgy, preach, or hear the Word. Reader comments are invited and encouraged.

GENESIS 45:3-11, 15
45:3 Why did Joseph have to Identify himself to his brothers? Why were his brothers dismayed? What do people in the pews need to know about the narrative preceding this passage in order to understand it, make sense of it, and put it into context?
45:4 There are interesting family systems dynamics at work here.
45:5 Do you think Joseph’s brothers were truly angry with themselves?
45:6 How did Joseph know about the future?
45:7 What is the difference between a remnant and many survivors?
45:8 Does Joseph let his brothers off the hook?
45:9 Is Joseph bragging?
45:10 Why would Joseph want his family near him? Where was the land of Goshen?
45:11 Note that Joseph refers to “your” household, not “our” household.
45:15 Would Joseph’s brothers not talk with him until after he kissed them and wept upon them?

PSALM 37:1-11, 39-40
37:1 We might fret because of the wicked, but are we truly envious of wrongdoers?
37:2 How soon does grass fade? Consider Isaiah 40:7-8 as well as 1 Peter 1:24.
37:3 Is this a carrot or a stick? Does God reward doing good?
37:4 Do you take delight in the LORD? What are the desires of your heart?
37:5 Have you committed your way to the LORD?
37:6 What does it mean to be vindicated? Do you need to be vindicated?
37:7 Does being still before the LORD mean anything like contemplative prayer. This verse seems to echo 37:1.
37:8 This is the third occurrence of “fret!” See 37:1 and 37: 7.
37:9 What does it mean to be cut off?
37:10 How does feed into apocalyptic theology and eschatology?
37:11 A 99% verse! See Matthew 5:5.
37:39 Where else might salvation come from? Where else do people look toward for salvation?
37:40 How does one take refuge in the LORD?

1 CORINTHIANS 15:35-38, 42-50
15:35 You and I might be this “someone!”
15:36 Why “Fool!?”
15:37 Sowing be the best metaphor if dead bodies were not traditionally buried in the ground?
15:38 I wonder how much 1 Corinthians 12:4-31 informs Paul’s thinking here.
15:42 But in nature, what is sown is not imperishable.
15:43 Is this physical life nothing but dishonor and weakness? How does Paul know about what he is agreeing for?
15:44 What is the distinction between physical and spiritual? What is the difference between a physical body and a spiritual body?
15:45 Where is this written?
15:46 Why must the physical precede the spiritual?
15:47 Modern cosmology would say all life is stardust!
15:48 What point is Paul making here? I s Paul discounting the incarnation?
15:49 What is the etymology and meaning of “image?” Can, and do, Christians bear two images?
15:50 I think Paul is now making more sense. If this is true, why do some go to great lengths to make dead bodies look like they are still alive and just sleeping?

LUKE 6:27-38
6:27 Are you listening? What sort of enemies was Jesus talking about?
6:28 What is the relationship between blessing and prayer?
6:29 What does being struck on the cheek symbolize? What is the difference between a coat and shirt?
6:30 Has Christianity historically encouraged begging like other religions have?
6:31 Sound advice. Who loves you and whom do you love?
6:32 Who loves you and whom do you love?
6:33 Who does good to you and to whom do you do good?
6:34 What has been the historically Christian attitude toward lending and the charging of interest?
6:35 A recap! Are Christians to do these things so that they will be rewarded?
6:36 What does it mean to be merciful?
6:37 It seems the church has often been quicker to judge and condemn than to forgive.
6:38 What is a “measure?”
                                                                  
ADDENDUM
I am a Minister Member of Upper Ohio Valley Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) and am serving as the Interim Pastor of the Richmond United Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Ohio. Sunday Worship at Richmond begins at 11:00 AM. Some of my other blog posts have appeared on PRESBYTERIAN BLOGGERS and The Trek.

Monday, February 4, 2019

Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 for the 6th Sunday in Ordinary Time (Year C)


Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 is a further revision and refinement of my Lectionary Ruminations and Lectionary Ruminations 2.0.  Focusing on The Revised Common Lectionary Readings for the upcoming Sunday from New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of the Bible, Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 draws on over thirty years of pastoral experience.  Believing that the questions we ask are often more important than any answers we find, without over reliance on commentaries, I intend with sometimes pointed and sometimes snarky comments and Socratic like questions, to encourage reflection and rumination for readers preparing to lead a Bible study, draft liturgy, preach, or hear the Word. Reader comments are invited and encouraged.

JEREMIAH 17:5-10
17:5 The LORD curses? Who trusts in mere mortals?
17:6 The cursed may be like shrubs in the parched desert but they still live.
17:7 Is there a difference between trusting in the LORD and the LORD being one’s trust?
17:8 What do you know about riparian zones? I am also thinking of several passages that speak of streams, water, living water, and wells.
17:9 Is the human heart depraved?
17:10 Does the LORD also search the mind and test the heart? Does the LORD know our heart and mind better than we ourselves know them?

PSALM 1
1:1 What advice do the wicked give? Are “the wicked,” “sinners,” and “scoffers” synonyms?
1:2 What does it mean to meditate on the law of the LORD?
1:3 See Jeremiah 17:8. Does this verse justify Psalm 1 being chosen for today’s Lectionary?
1:4 What is chaff?
1:5 It seems that “the wicked” and “sinners” are indeed synonyms.
1:6 Why am I thinking of Robert Frost’s poem The Road Not Taken? Which way have you chosen to follow?

1 CORINTHIANS 15:12-20
15:12 Who were saying that there is no resurrection of the dead? The resurrection is a central doctrine of the Christian faith.
15:13 I can find no fault with Paul’s logic.
15:14 Again, I can find no fault with Paul’s logic. On the other hand, I think we need to reflect on what we mean by “resurrection from the dead.”
15:15 Why is Paul engaging in this mental exercise?
15:16 Does this say anything different than 15:13?
15:17 Does this say anything different than 15:14? Is Paul repeating himself?
15:18 Well, yea!
15:19 Even though Christianity looks beyond this life and this world, does that mean we abandon this world and life?
15:20 Could Paul claim this if it had not been for his Damascus Road experience and encounter with the risen Christ? What is a first fruit.

LUKE 6:17-26
6:17 Why the distinction between “a great crowd of his disciple”: and “ great multitude of people?” What might the numbers have been? Is there any significance to the geographical identifiers?
6:18 How are hearing and being healed related? Is being troubled with unclean spirits different than being diseased?
6:19 What sort of power came out from Jesus? Is there a difference between touching Jesus and being touched by Jesus?
6:20 What does it mean to be blessed?
6:21 Are hunger and weeping related?
6:22 Was Jesus speaking to the multitude of people, to the great crowd of his disciples, or both?
6:23 What day?
6:24 This is a 99% verse!
6:25 The antithesis of 6:21
6:26 The antithesis of 6:22-23
                                                                  
ADDENDUM
I am a Minister Member of Upper Ohio Valley Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) and am serving as the Interim Pastor of the Richmond United Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Ohio. Sunday Worship at Richmond begins at 11:00 AM. Some of my other blog posts have appeared on PRESBYTERIAN BLOGGERS and The Trek.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 for the 5th Sunday in Ordinary Time (Year C)


Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 is a further revision and refinement of my Lectionary Ruminations and Lectionary Ruminations 2.0.  Focusing on The Revised Common Lectionary Readings for the upcoming Sunday from New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of the Bible, Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 draws on over thirty years of pastoral experience.  Believing that the questions we ask are often more important than any answers we find, without over reliance on commentaries, I intend with sometimes pointed and sometimes snarky comments and Socratic like questions, to encourage reflection and rumination for readers preparing to lead a Bible study, draft liturgy, preach, or hear the Word. Reader comments are invited and encouraged.

ISAIAH 6:1-8 (9-13)
6:1 Who was King Uzziah and what year did King Uzziah die. Why does it matter? How did Isaiah see what he saw?
6:2 What is a Seraph? Why would seraphs cover their feet?
6:3 How many seraphs were there? What language might the seraphs have been speaking? I wonder the seraphs learned the Sanctus. Or were seraphs the first to give voice to the Sanctus? Is therefore anything significant about threefold praise?
6:4 What are pivots and thresholds? Were the seraphs the ones calling? Might the smoke have been the smoke of burnet offerings or incense? We have the smells but where are the bells?
6:5 Would you feel woe seeing such a sight? Is this a confession of sin?
6:6 What might the live coal signify?
6:7 How can live coal blot out sin?
6:8 Who are the “us?”
6:1-8 This passage reminds me of Rudolph Otto’s “Mysterium Tremendum” in The Idea of the Holy. Was it just a vision? “Handle Holy things with holy care!” If you think you saw a pink polka dot elephant in the back yard but know that it was a vision, dream, or hallucination, you are sane bu might want to talk with a spiritual director. If you think you saw a pink polka dot elephant in the back yard and later go out with a shovel and bucket to clean up its droppings, you are mentally ill and need to see a Psychiatrist.
I think that if you read this passage carefully, you will find it mentions all five senses. When was the last time you attended and participated in fully embodied, sensual worship? When was th e last time you experienced the awesomeness and the grandeur and God? I think what is missing in much contemporary society and even worship is a sense of awe. Are we underwhelmed? I think a fully embodied, sensual worship which seeks to expose the awesomeness and grandeur of God would overwhelm  people wanting a god they can domesticate, control, and manipulate.
(6:9) Is this a prophecy of judgement?
(6:10) Why would the Lord command a prophet to preach such a message?
(6:11) How many times have we wondered the same – how long? This is not a comforting vision.
(6:12) Why will the Lord do this?
(6:13) What is a terebinth? What do you make of “The Holy seed is its stump?”

PSALM 138
138:1 Before what gods will the Psalmist sing?
138:2 Why do protestants generally not bow in worship?
138:3 What is strength of soul?
138:4 Have all the kings of the earth really heard the words of God’s mouth?
138:5 Do you and your congregation sing of the ways of the LORD?
138:6 What glory is not great?
138:7 This reminds me of the 23rd Psalm.
138:8 What is the LORD’s purpose for you?

1 CORINTHIANS 15:1-11
15:1 Why do Christians in Corinth need to be reminded of this?
15:2 Have you felt that you have believed in vain?
15:3 How, when, and where did Paul receive what he is now handing on?
15:4 Note that Christ was raised. He did not rise from is volition.
15:5 Was Cephas not one of the twelve? Was Judas among the twelve?     
15:6 Why mention that most are alive though some have died?
15:7 Who are the other apostles?
15:8 Has Christ not appeared to anyone since Paul?
15:9 Was Paul both the least and the last apostle, as far as he knew/
15:10 What is Paul?
15:11 Is there a difference between sharing one’s faith and imposing one’s faith?

LUKE 5:1-11
1:1 What are other names for the lake of Gennesaret?
1:2 Is there any significance to the number two?
1:3 So Simon was still in the boat?
1:4 Was Simon the one who first told this story?
1:5 Was Simon alone or were others with him? “If you say so” is an interesting expression coming from the mouth of Simon.
1:6 I wonder how many fish they caught.
1:7 This sounds like a lot of fish.
1:8 Why might Simon have felt this way and said what he said?
1:9 When was the last time you were amazed?
1:10 Was Simon’s brother Andrew not part of the business? What does fear have to do with anything. Might we see this story as a prelude to Pentecost?
1:11 What happened to what they left? What does it to follow Jesus?         
ADDENDUM
I am a Minister Member of Upper Ohio Valley Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) and am serving as the Interim Pastor of the Richmond United Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Ohio. Sunday Worship at Richmond begins at 11:00 AM. Some of my other blog posts have appeared on PRESBYTERIAN BLOGGERS and The Trek.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 for the 4th Sunday in Ordinary Time (Year C)


Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 is a further revision and refinement of my Lectionary Ruminations and Lectionary Ruminations 2.0.  Focusing on The Revised Common Lectionary Readings for the upcoming Sunday from New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of the Bible, Lectionary Ruminations 2.5 draws on over thirty years of pastoral experience.  Believing that the questions we ask are often more important than any answers we find, without over reliance on commentaries, I intend with sometimes pointed and sometimes snarky comments and Socratic like questions, to encourage reflection and rumination for readers preparing to lead a Bible study, draft liturgy, preach, or hear the Word. Reader comments are invited and encouraged.

JEREMIAH 1:4-10
1:4 Has the word of the LORD ever come to you, and if so, how? How do you know it is a word of the Lord and not some deception of the imagination?
1:5 I doubt this could be used as an argument for life beginning at conception as this sounds like life, or personhood, begins even before conception.  What do you know about the philosophy of George Berkeley and does it have any bearing on how we might interpret this passage?  Is this God talking to Jeremiah?
1:6 Is this “I do not know how to speak” and “I am only a boy” defense anything like that of Moses?
1:7 Such a defense, as above, never seems to work. Sometimes it seems like God calls us before we are prepared or ready and we get on the job training.
1:8 Do not be afraid of whom, the nations?
1:9 Does this remind you of any other accounts in the Hebrew Scriptures?  Is this entire Reading a call narrative?
1:10 Note two pairs of destructive activities and one pair of creative activities. How can a prophet do such things with only words? Is the pen, or the quill, or the word truly mightier than the aword?

PSALM 71:1-6
71:1 What comes to your mind when you hear the word “refuge?” What is so bad about shame? Have you ever felt shamed?
71:2 How does the LORD incline the divine ear?
71:3 How is a rock of refuge like a fortress?  Do any rocks come to your mind when you hear “rock of refuge?”
71:4 Is the Psalmist already in the hand of the wicked and the grasp of the unjust and cruel?
71:5 Every time I read this I think of “Star Wars IV – A New Hope” and Princes Leia pleading “Help me Obi Wan Kenobi, you're our only hope.”
71:6 Does this verse justify the Lectionary pairing this Psalm with the First Reading from Jeremiah (See Jeremiah 1:5)?  Does this verse justify referring to the LORD as a midwife?

1 CORINTHIANS 13:1-11
13:1-13 Why read this in Sunday worship if there is no wedding to follow?  What can be said about this Reading that has not already been said?  Why do we tend to read this at weddings when we really need to read it at divorce proceedings and during church conflict?
13:1 What tongue do angels speak? Do you remember “The Gong Show?”
13:2 Those are big “ifs!”
13:3 Is this an allusion to a story Jesus told about a rich young man (see Matt. 19:16-30, Mark 10:17-31, and Luke 18:18-30)?
13:4-7 Is there anything missing from this definition/list?  How about Jenny (Ali McGraw) telling Oliver (Ryan O'Neal) “Love means never having to say you’re sorry” as written by Erich Segal in Love Story?
13:8 Of the three Greek words for love, which word is Paul using? So love is nit teleological?
13:9 Is all knowledge partial? Does this suggest an apophatic form of spirituality?
13:10 When will the complete come?
13:11 Is there a difference between being childish and childlike?
13:12 It is a little enigmatic, nevertheless, this is one of my favorite verses.  Is there any play on the idea of “icon” here?  What is the difference between a thing reflected and its reflection? The best mirrors in Paul’s day were probably made of highly polished metal. Glass mirrors as we know them did not exist.
13:13 Where did faith and hope come from?

LUKE 5:1-11
4:21 Who is speaking?  To whom is he speaking?  What is the setting?  What scripture?
4:22 All?  Is this hyperbole?  When was the last time you were amazed by anyone’s words?  I think it is interesting that the speaker is identified as Joseph’s son rather than Mary’s son.
4:23 Where did this proverb come from?  What were people saying about his time in Capernaum?
4:24 What do you think about this? I wonder if Jeremiah had any such notion.
4:25 What does this have to do with anything?
4:26 Where was Elijah from? Is there anything significant or special about Zarephath in Sidon?
4:27 So?
4:28 Why were they filled with rage?  I thought they were all amazed.  What happened between verse 22 and verse 28?
4:29 Why am I thinking about swine?
4:30 What does it mean that “he passed through the midst of them?” Was this a sign? A wonder? A miracle?
                                                                  
ADDENDUM
I am a Minister Member of Upper Ohio Valley Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) and am serving as the Interim Pastor of the Richmond United Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Ohio. Sunday Worship at Richmond begins at 11:00 AM. Some of my other blog posts have appeared on PRESBYTERIAN BLOGGERS and The Trek.